# Lessons

### How to shape course

How to Shape a course. Let us assume that we wish to sail from A to B and that A is the departure point and B is the arrival point. Using your parrellel ruler and a pencil draw a line joining the two points A and B. This line is the track you...

### Allowance for leeway 1

After taking into account the effects of the tidal set and drift, another factor has to be considered: the wind. The effect of the wind is called Leeway. When you experience strong wind from abeam, you will have to allow for leeway. Leeway is the...

### Allowance for leeway 2

In this example, your boat has a compass heading of 090 degrees, so it follows that the reciprocal heading is 270 degrees – 090 degrees plus 180 degrees. The reading of the boats wake by hand bearing compass is 265 degrees. The difference...

### Allowance for tidal streams 1

In order to allow for the set and drift of the tide and to calculate the Course to steer – we begin as follows We will assume that our Ground Track is 045 degrees true. Draw in the ground track A – B and mark it with two arrow heads...

### Allowance for tidal streams 2

Let’s now consult the “Tidal Levels Table” which is located on the chart. As we can see, the spring tidal range in Portsmouth is 4.4 meters high, MHWS (Mean High Water Springs), 4.4 meters minus MLWS (Mean Low Water Springs)...

### Allowance for tidal streams 3

To allow for set and drift of the tide firstly we will apply the tidal set of 115 True degrees from point A. We place the parrallel ruler on the 115 degree line on the compass rose and then transfer to point A and draw a line. Using the dividers...

### Introduction

Distress signals are used when a boat or a crew member are in grave and immenent danger and require immediate assistance. Several devices can be used to attract the attention of possible rescue units: a radio, an EPIRB, a radar transponder...

The most common way of sending a distress signal is by radio. Modern radios conform to the GMDSS (Global Maritime Distress and Safety System). GMDSS is an international system that uses terrestrial and satellite technology and ship board radio...

### Disstress pyrotechnics

Distress pyrotechnics come in various types: handheld, buoyant, or as parachute rockets. The red parachute rocket is designed for long – range signaling. During the day the visibility of the flare is up to 8 nautical miles and at night up...

### Epirb

Another very important aid to one – way radio communication is the EPIRB. EPIRB stands for Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon. The EPIRB transmits the distress alert to a satellite. The satellite locates the EPIRB’s position...

### Sart

SART stands for Search and Rescue Transponder. It is a device for locating ships or their survival craft in distress. The SART operates in the 9 GHz frequency band – generating a series of dots when being interrogated by a search craft with...

### Signaling flags

When in sight of another vessel and no flares or radio are available you can use the signaling flags to call attention to a distress situation. If you require assistance you can use the Code Flag “Victor”. Hoist the Code Flag...

### Mayday call

Start a MAYDAY CALL procedure as follows: Check that the main battery switch is on; and switch the radio to a high power setting. select channel 16 on VHF or 2182 kHz on an MF transmitter. When you use the MF transmitter the distress message...

### Introduction

Fire prevention is the best way to fight a fire. Therefore it is important to know what may cause a fire, and where it could start. The most common areas where fires originate are the galley, the electrical panels and the engine room. Possible...

### Vital tips 1

Good housekeeping is necessary in order to prevent a fire. Here are some vital tips: 1. Maintain a stringent non-smoking policy. 2. Keep flammables, such as clothing and paper, away from radiators. 3. Be sure small appliances are unplugged when...

### Vital tips 2

Here are more vital tips for fire prevention: 1. Store dirty rags with oil or paint in closed metal containers until you dispose of them. 2. Check that wiring is properly secured and protected from chafing. 3. Keep flammable liquids in their...

### Fire triangle

In order to understand how to extinguish a fire, you should first of all know something about the causes. For a fire to burn, three elements must be present at the same time. These three elements are: Fuel heat and oxygen. Let’s have a...

### Classes of fire

In order to extinguish a fire properly, you have to understand the materials that are burning. A fire involving wood must be handled differently than a fire involving petrol. Therefore fire is divided into 6 classes: Class “A” fires...

### Introduction water, dry powder extinguisher

Fire extinguishers are categorized by the class of fire that they will extinguish, and by the substances they contain. They are labeled with capital letters according to the class of fire. Extinguishers may be rated for only one class, or for...

### CO2 extinguisher, foam extinguisher

CO2 extinguisher: A carbon dioxide (CO2) extinguisher causes the fire to suffocate. Co2 removes the oxygen element from the fire triangle. Use this fire extinguisher for class “B” and “E” fires. Never use a CO2...